RUSENG
Yoga / Form / Energy formation theory / Six factors accompanying ...
Universal Yoga

What styles of yoga do you practice?
Universal Yoga
Iyengar Yoga
Ashtanga-Vinyasa Yoga
Power Yoga
Vinyasa-Flow Yoga
Kundalini Yoga
Tri Yoga
Ha-Tha Yoga
Vini Yoga
Anusara Yoga
Pure Yoga
Another Style

Yoga soft
Six factors accompanying the breath

Association of breathing with the state of consciousness Six characteristics of breathing
Six factors accompanying the breath Combined Control
Sri Mantra

The breath is related to the following accompanying factors: acoustic vibrations, temperature, internal pressure, forward signals and feedback signals, smoothness of the breath and characteristics of the respiratory pathways.


1. Acoustic Vibrations

An organisms life is accompanied by numerous sounds related to the operation of various life systems and organs. During training, the practitioner accumulates experience with these sounds, and begins to understand the meaning of the processes they represent. The sound vibrations are one of the main resources of information in the system of direct and back ties. Realization of these acoustic codes allows one to understand phenomena at various levels of your own essence, and to understand the essence of other people and animals. Also this understanding allows the affecting of behavior and reactions in yourself, as well as in others.

Loud sounds result from natural functions of the organism heart pulse, breath, arm and leg movements, food processing (chewing, swallowing, digesting), cleansing (coughing, sneezing, burping, vomiting, defecating) and etc. Usually, these sounds are generated by contacting the walls of respiratory pathways, by movement of the air in the places of expansion in the respiratory channels, and by digested food.

There is also a large spectrum of delicate internal sounds connected with the blood flows in the blood group system, signals in the nervous system, tension of power fields, mental flows and various modifications of the consciousness.

With the use of special acoustic vibrations (Mantras), one can consciously reach different effects at a particular level. According to the level of roughness and level of consciousness, Mantras may be divided into three main groups. Gradual transition from one level to another occurs in the process of realization the impact (essence) of a particular Mantra.

The first group comprises loud acoustic syllables (e.g., Om, Hum, Lam, and etc.) These are pronounced or sung using the same phonetic capabilities as used for words, with special position of the tongue and the lips in the mouth cavity and determine particular properties in the air flow and create the desired acoustic vibrations.

The second group includes acoustic vibrations not linked to any known alphabet counterparts. These resemble humming sounds, and are distinguished by the range and frequency of their generation. These Mantras are not so loud as are usually pronounced with the closed mouth. They may resemble some letter-combinations, but the resemblance is vague, not so different, and not as clear as in the articulation of syllables comprising the first group. Using them is like using a tonometer, where one can tune all sections of psychic-energy structures to a particular frequency and achieve the resonance splash.

A typical example of generating such sounds is Bhamari Pranayama.

The third group comprises externally noiseless vibrations, which are the result of mental pronunciation or singing of a Mantra. They penetrate deep into the consciousness doing superfine corrections and tuning. Nadabrama meditation is a typical example of the generation of such sounds.

Mantras of the first two groups are in one way or the other related to exhalation, whereas the third group of Mantras has almost no dependence on breath, but depends on its activity by requiring a general level of silence of the nervous system and stable attention.

In natural conditions, it is possible to diagnose and judge the nature of the processes in the body by analyzing the peculiarities and the place of sound generation. When doing special breathing exercises, it is possible to obtain information about the state of respiratory channels, the uniformity and speed of airflow, etc.

Practical understanding of the essence of the first and second level sounds allows you to distinguish the truth of the words, the zone of generation, and the essence of acoustic vibrations both in yourself and in other people. This allows you to unmistakably determine the scope of truth in the words spoken by anybody.

By bringing the notional meanings of words and the vibrating essence of the psychic-energetic filling of transferring sense during ones speech into actions it becomes possible to give full information by expressing a true sense as well as the meaning of the given message.

Realization of the essence of the third level sounds allows one to see the thoughts of people, not only in the form of the words but in the form of access to the essence of their real thinking, motivations and intent. Any difference between what a person says and what he/she really thinks becomes obvious.


2. Temperature

Body temperature is one of the main indicators of the state of the psychic-energy structure. It can serve as a basis for viewing bodily processes and how with changing of temperature affect to them.

Practicing physical or breathing exercises is usually accompanied by an increase in body temperature. This is connected with the activation of the metabolic processes in the organism. This increased temperature may be used to increase plasticity of tissues in exercises requiring deep stretching, since heating any material, including tissues of the body, causes them to expand and become more elastic. Increasing body temperature in the In normal conditions, the difference between internal lung pressure and outer pressure is not high, and it is conditioned by the necessity to provide normal breathing. Substantial muscle tensions, however, result in natural breath delays. Tension of the abdominal cavity and the diaphragm, results in an increase of pressure inside the lungs and activates energy exchange. Think about somebody lifting something heavy from the ground (a stone or a barbell). They generate sounds like Utt. Try it yourself What happens in this event?.. And read this paragraph once again.

The human organism consists largely of fluid. Therefore, body metabolism in it is by this or that manner linked with hydraulic effects. Blood flow, as known, occurs due to the work of the heart. Inside the blood vessels, there are one-way valves that let the blood pass in only one direction. And when the muscles work dynamically, they encourage blood flow and alleviate the efforts of the heart in moving the blood.

During static effort, this assistance is not provided, and the heart carries the whole load. Therefore, people who practice Asanas in the static mode, avoiding Bandhas or membrane locks, will sooner or later start feeling heart pains. These pains may continue until the method of practice is changed to include dynamic Vinyasas, or Bandhas, which aid the heart to transport blood to particular zones of the body.

But beyond just blood to the muscles, there is a more important reason to control the bodys internal pressure.

Increase of the pressure and the activation of blood circulation within the area of particular glands cause secretions. The flow of these secretions in the blood causes serious psychic changes and the transformation of consciousness. The energy enclosed within the secretions of these glands serve as additional power to transform the borders of perception. It is for these reasons that comprehensive training with physical exercises, synchronized with special breathing exercises, is absolutely required to receive an experience of different modifications and the real expanding of consciousness.

One should note here that the use of hyperventilation, dynamic synchronization of movement and breathing, and also others aerobic regimes, results in the secretion of endorphins. These are essentially natural internal drugs, which affect the same receptors of the brain as artificial drugs and cause changes in the state of consciousness, specific effects include slight intoxication and insensitivity to pain, which is widely used in training to anaesthetize and achieve extraordinary results. The impact of such natural internal drugs is not harmful since their presence in the organism can not be in excess of the acceptable levels. In addition, their composition is natural, because they are produced by the organism itself.

The human body has three main cavities: abdominal, chest, and cranial, which are interconnected. They are surrounded with flexible walls In normal conditions, the difference between internal lung pressure and outer pressure is not high, and it is conditioned by the necessity to provide normal breathing. Substantial muscle tensions, however, result in natural breath delays. Tension of the abdominal cavity and the diaphragm, results in an increase of pressure inside the lungs and activates energy exchange. Think about somebody lifting something heavy from the ground (a stone or a barbell). They generate sounds like Utt. Try it yourself What happens in this event?.. And read this paragraph once again.

The human organism consists largely of fluid. Therefore, body metabolism in it is by this or that manner linked with hydraulic effects. Blood flow, as known, occurs due to the work of the heart. Inside the blood vessels, there are one-way valves that let the blood pass in only one direction. And when the muscles work dynamically, they encourage blood flow and alleviate the efforts of the heart in moving the blood.

During static effort, this assistance is not provided, and the heart carries the whole load. Therefore, people who practice Asanas in the static mode, avoiding Bandhas or membrane locks, will sooner or later start feeling heart pains. These pains may continue until the method of practice is changed to include dynamic Vinyasas, or Bandhas, which aid the heart to transport blood to particular zones of the body.

But beyond just blood to the muscles, there is a more important reason to control the bodys internal pressure.

Increase of the pressure and the activation of blood circulation within the area of particular glands cause secretions. The flow of these secretions in the blood causes serious psychic changes and the transformation of consciousness. The energy enclosed within the secretions of these glands serve as additional power to transform the borders of perception. It is for these reasons that comprehensive training with physical exercises, synchronized with special breathing exercises, is absolutely required to receive an experience of different modifications and the real expanding of consciousness.

One should note here that the use of hyperventilation, dynamic synchronization of movement and breathing, and also others aerobic regimes, results in the secretion of endorphins. These are essentially natural internal drugs, which affect the same receptors of the brain as artificial drugs and cause changes in the state of consciousness, specific effects include slight intoxication and insensitivity to pain, which is widely used in training to anaesthetize and achieve extraordinary results. The impact of such natural internal drugs is not harmful since their presence in the organism can not be in excess of the acceptable levels. In addition, their composition is natural, because they are produced by the organism itself.

The human body has three main cavities: abdominal, chest, and cranial, which are interconnected. They are surrounded with flexible walls and movable muscle membranes. Due to the strain of these muscle membranes (fulfilling Bandhas) it becomes possible to control their position, efforts created by them and degree of their elasticity (Fig. 37).


Fig.37
A Chest cavity, B Abdominal cavity, C Cranial cavity Muscle membranes: 1 pelvis bottom, 2 abdomen, 3 neck, 4 diaphragm
- - - - - - possible positions of the membranes
Effort: F1 pelvis bottom muscles, F2 loin and abdominal press muscles, F3 front neck, gullet and tongue root muscles, F4 diaphragm after the inhale, F5 = F1 + F2 high pressure within the abdominal cavity, F6 counter-action of the chest muscles, F7 = F5 + F6 high pressure in the chest cavity.

In the natural position (Fig. 37a), the pressure within the chest (A), abdominal (B) and cranial (C) cavities is normally balanced.

During inhalation, the muscles of the chest and the diaphragm (4) expand the chest cavity (A), and the diaphragm (4) and the muscles of the abdomen (2) are lowered. In the majority of normal people, the muscles of the pelvic floor, abdomen and neck are not trained, always relaxed or insignificantly strained, sagged, without actively participating in the breathing process.

During exhalation, the pelvic floor, abdomen and neck muscles remain relaxed, the ribcage sags, the diaphragm is raised and strained, and the abdomen is pulled slightly in. Topside movement of the diaphragm during inhalation increases the volume of the chest cavity, but due to retraction of the abdomen, the internal abdominal pressure remains unchanged. And the downward movement of the diaphragm during inhalation reduces the volume of the abdominal pressure and this is now compensated by means of puffing the abdomen. Thus the internal abdominal pressure is kept unchanged.

Therefore, during normal breathing, all changes of the abdominal cavity form are a function of the breath-conditioned movements of the chest and diaphragm, and the pelvic, abdominal, and neck membranes move only passively and do not affect any of the characteristics of the breathing process.

By consciously controlling the muscle membrane tension, i. e., by the practice of Bandhas, possible intentionally alter the pressure in the cavities and achieve the transfer of the internal pressure and blood to particular zones of the body.

So, delaying breathing after an inhalation (Fig. 37b), and intensively drawing in the muscle membranes of the pelvic floor and abdomen, increases the pressure on the internal abdomen. This causes the transfer of the resulting force of the excessive pressure (F5) from the abdominal cavity (B) through the diaphragm to the chest cavity (A). This will lead to a pressure increase in the chest cavity and, as a result, to the expansion of the chest and transfer of the residual effort caused by the excessive pressure (F7) from the chest cavity (A) through the relaxed neck membrane to the cranial cavity (C). This pressure transfer to the cranial cavity may be blocked, if by simultaneously tensing muscle membranes of the pelvic floor and the abdominal cavity, one creates a counter-effort to the forces acting from below (F7). This blocking effect results (F3 + F6) by pulling the head down and tensing the muscles of the neck membrane (front surface muscles, gullet and the root of the tongue).

If exhaling and fully emptying the lungs, and to do this not only at the expansion of the muscles of the ribcage and diaphragm but with using the resulting force (F5), pulls in the muscle membranes of the pelvic floor and the abdominal muscles, in addition to the muscles of the chest and the diaphragm. Then, relaxing them (1 and 2) and then straining again (Fig. 37a), but this time pushing out (F1 and F2) out from the center of the abdominal cavity. The pressure inside the abdomen will be lower than in the chest cavity, which will lead to the transfer of the resulting force (F5) through the membrane of the diaphragm from the chest cavity down to the abdominal cavity. The pressure inside the chest will be reduced even more due to the counter-forces of the chest (F6) upon its maximum compression. But this will result in the transfer of the retracting force (F7) from the cranial cavity (C) inside the chest cavity (A). This will result in the reduction of the intra-cranial pressure and partial increase of intra-thoracic pressure. This may not occur, if during exhalation, one keeps the neck membrane relaxed, and during the post-exhalation delay, to create contracted force (F3) by the neck membrane is made by pushing the neck up and outward from the chest, and simultaneously straining and lowering the pelvic and the abdominal membranes.

Usually, people do not realize the above processes, therefore, when performing particular muscular work, the muscular membranes of their body strain unconsciously and often inconsistently. This results in an internal pressure distribution that is in excess of the acceptable durability limit for internal tissues and damages them (common injuries include ruptures, pressure increases, headaches, etc.).

A typical example of a breathing exercise that creates a change in the internal pressure within the bodys cavities is Ujayi Pranayama.

During conscious manipulations with Bandhas, should take into account the inertion character of the bodys hydraulic system. After these manipulations, body returns to the normal breathing mode, but the difference of the blood pressure in the cavities will remain for a time. Balance and stability will return later, depending on the passive characteristics of organisms individual hydraulic processes.

Control over Bandhas allows the practitioner to achieve extraordinary super-power in performing strength exercises.

The internal pressure control principle serves as the basis for practical methods of many schools of Eastern martial arts, in addition to Yoga. Bandhas perform the work of the heart, and use the force of some of the big muscle groups to help the heart. They are a second heart, which is stronger than the first one by several times.

Practical experience in controlling internal pressure allows one to substantially increase the power of your psychic-energy processes during training, and to consciously control the internal pressure of daily life. Controlling the pressure inside the bodys cavities becomes possible, not only during static breath delays, but also during dynamic and non-delayed breathing with controlled resistance or assistance during inhalation or the exhalation.

Sufficient practical experience allows to consciously increase or reduce blood pressure, not only within the cavities of the body and the head, but also in the blood vessels of the arms and legs.

This control allows the possibility to forget about headaches caused by hypertension or hypotension, intestinal disorders and blood circulation to the extremities.

Manipulations with Bandhas influence not only on the circulatory system, but also on the lymphatic and nervous systems.


4. Control over Signal System

The bodys signal system is the system of direct ties and feedback ties that exchange signals between the controlling structures and the major parts of the body.

The controlling structures pertain to consciousness and subconscious and contain a set of programs of various generations, versions and complexity levels.

Direct ties serve to send commands from the controlling centers to major body parts. Whereas, the feedback ties are for signals sent by special receptors located in different organs and systems, and they carry coded information about the actual processes.

Our subconscious contains a set of our bodys most ancient programs (at least 95%). These are reliable and verified by thousands of years of evolutionary trials. They support all natural functions, providing and protecting the life of the organic body, which is their material realization. Some of these programs are useless atavisms, but the majority of them are the best we can have till now. Any interference with their algorithms results in serious functional disturbances and diseases.

The consciousness, however, contains a small set of universal up-to-date programs of the last generation, which can mach more easily be changed and developed. These form the spiritual basis for a human being, which is its way of manifestation.

Every individuals sensitivity to their own signal systems differs. The development of the signal system means:

  • expanded sensitivity with a simultaneous development of protective capabilities, the ability to adapt to both rough and super-powerful signals, from hypersensitivity to complete insensitivity;
  • increased selective capability and degree of discretion by the controlling system;
  • the change of the pathways and varying the direction of feedback signals (taking, for example, inhalation for an exhalation and vice versa);
  • the special transformation of feedback signals and a connection to the program controlling modeling units, which can imitate various feedback information signals, and lead to various reactions of the controlling program and relevant changes in the body.

By the location of the generation of feedback signals in meditation, one can monitor the condition of the bodys tiniest perception receptors. By determining the location sending these signals, memorizing and concentrating your attention on them and ignoring areas which provide no information at all, one can determine more pathways for the feedback signals to the controlling centers of the brain.

For example, when speaking about the breathing process, the ability to differentiate between one of the two groups of information is of practical interest.

Group one includes the signals informing about the state of respiratory organs: their disposition, the pressure exerted on them, temperature, energy resource, characteristics of the current breath control program, etc.

The second group includes signals informing about the quality of the air inside of the respiratory organs: flow rate, temperature, energy content, presence of airborne dust, ions provoke odour and taste sensations, etc.

The signals referring to the first group are received from special receptors of the muscle groups participating in the breathing process, the tissues in contact with the air, and the respiratory center of the brain itself. The signals referring to the second group are received from special receptors located on the mucous membranes of the respiratory pathways, tongue, and teeth, along with signals from the general system informing about enough quantity of energy which is necessary for the human organism.

In this case the transformation of breathing characteristics inevitably causes changes in the feedback signals.


5. Smoothness of breathing

Smoothness of breathing depends on the rate of breathing set by the correlation between breath frequency and amplitude, and on the possible acceleration or damping of the breath during inhalation or exhalation. Acceleration or damping of the breath determines the character of the impact of the airflow on the receptors on the surface of the mucous membranes of the respiratory channels, and affects the energy exchange and other characteristics of the breath.

Increasing the frequency of breathing with the same amplitude (Fig. 38a), or increasing the amplitude with the same frequency (Fig. 38b), results in the reduction of smoothness of the breath and the radius of the peaks between inhalation and exhalation is reduced the peaks acquire a sharper shape.


Fig.38a

Fig.38b

Such sharpening increases the intensity of dangerous deforming impacts on the mucous membranes of the respiratory organs. This may result in overdosing, and may also cause inflammations (colds), reduced sensitivity of the informing receptors, etc.

Reducing the frequency with the same amplitude (Fig. 39a), or reducing the amplitude with the same frequency (Fig. 39b), increases the smoothness of the breath. The radius of the peaks between inhalation and exhalation is increased the peaks acquire a round shape, eliminating the possibility of the above adverse consequences. Conscious rounding of the peaks is achieved through damping the breath before changing between inhalation and exhalation, and vice versa, with subsequent acceleration after such changes.


Fig.39a

Fig.39b

6. Respiratory pathways

Natural breath occurs through the nostrils or, in special cases, through the mouth. Our subconscious contains special programs to control respiratory pathways depending on the general energy balance of the body, disease-like defects, temperature and the quality of the inhaled air.

With the purpose of conscious influence on the characteristics of breathing through manipulations with respiratory pathways, different schools use special exercises which provide the opening or closing of the nostrils or the mouth separately, the simultaneous closing of the latter, or in a combination of two or all three openings at the same time.

Naturally, the mouth is closed by the lips, various positions of the tongue and lower jaw. Whereas, the nose is closed by contracting the sphincter muscles around the nostril openings to the gullet, and by narrowing the open flow areas of the nostrils around the nose bridge through changing blood circulation within this zone.

Artificially, the mouth and the nose are closed with palms and fingers of one or both hands by pressing on the lips and nostril wings.

The main respiratory pathways are: nasopharynx, mouth, trachea, bronchi, and intra-lungs space. But secondary respiratory pathways also exist, and they are rather important for the life of the organism. These are the gaimor cavities, syringes, ear cavities, lachrymal channels, esophagus, stomach, intestine and genital cavities.

Natural movement of the air through the secondary pathways occurs during breathing, yawning, sneezing, swallowing, blowing the nose, eating, drinking, burping, digesting food, defecation and performing physical movements.

Artificially flow of air inside the secondary pathways may be effected using special manipulations.

Ear cavities can be filled with air through syringes when the mouth is closed, and thus increase the air pressure inside the gullet. This can be achieved by exhaling with the nose held closed by the fingers. Excessive pressure in the ear cavities can be released by imitating yawning, swallowing, or with special movements of the lower jaw and the root of the tongue.

The air may flow through the lachrymal channels when imitating nose blowing.

Special exercises, which imitate swallowing, burping the air with the stomach, and filling and releasing the air from the intestines assist in achieving intensive cooling of the organism, ventilate the esophagus, and stimulate the oxidization processes in the digestive tract.

Conscious change of the open flow areas of the air channels may be achieved using a variety of natural and artificial positions within the range of ultimate mobility, from complete opening to full contraction:

In the mouth area:

  1. - with the jaw
    • from complete opening to full closing of the teeth
    • from ultimate abduction to one side to ultimate abduction to the other side
  2. with the tongue
    • by ultimately drawing up and down (in Khechari Mudra)
    • by tightly pressing down (in Kurma Mudra)
    • by drawing to the sides until touching the points on the internal surface of the cheeks (special energy contacts)
    • by placing the tip of the tongue on the alveoli above the uppercutting teeth, above and back at the depth of the gullet (in Nabhi Mudra)
    • by pressing in the front against upper or lower teeth (special energy contacts)
    • by making it flat (in normal position)
    • by making it a round form (in Sitali Pranayama)
    • by rolling a tube form (in Sitakari Pranayama)
  3. with the lips
    • by ultimate withdrawal (in Simhasana)
    • by firmly pressing (upon the breath delays)
    • by rolling a tube form (in the Cleansing Pranayama)
    • by firmly pressing on the gums above the teeth (special position)
    • by firmly pressing on the teeth (special position)
    • by turning them inside around the teeth (special position)
    • by drawing them away from the teeth (special position)
    • by turning them outside (special position)

In the area of nostrils artificially close it by pressing on the nostril wings with the fingers (in Surya Bhedana Pranayama, Chandra Bhedana Pranayama, and Nadi Sodhana Pranayama), and by natural expansion of the nostrils and raising the upper lip (in the intensive Bhastrika Pranayama). A combination is possible also.

In the area of nasopharynx by natural fixation of the sphincter muscles that surround the openings of nostrils into the gullet (for example, when diving a head in water).

In the area of gullet by natural fixation of the tongue root and muscles that surround the gullet (during breathing delays).

In the area of the glottis by natural fixation of the glottis (during control or breathing delay).

In the area of the Eustachian tubes by natural fixation of the marginal positions through tensing the muscles of the gullet, tongue and jaw by imitating swallowing and chewing movements (during blowing before a deep dive or during the release of excessive pressure in the ear cavities).

In the area of lachrymal channels by natural fixation of marginal positions through tensing muscles when closing eyes (in special cleansing exercises).

In the abdominal area by naturally fixing marginal positions of sphincters at the intake of the esophagus and outlet to the intestine (in special cleansing exercises).

In the genital area by naturally fixing marginal positions of tension in the muscles of genitals in special exercises during sexual intercourse (in Vajroli Mudra and Yoni Mudra).

In the anus area by naturally fixing marginal positions of the anus sphincter muscles (upper and lower, about 57 cm one above another) (in Ashvini Mudra).

The practice of Pranayama leads to conscious changing of air pathways. Typical examples of such breath exercises are Anuloma Pranayama and Pratiloma Pranayama, during the practice of which inhalation and exhalation are through one nostril only or through two nostrils in turns.



Copyright © 2006 - 2018 Universal Yoga, Yoga Soft Group